Historic St. Mary's
Mission & Museum
est. 1841

406-777-5734
stmary@cybernet1.com
P.O. Box 211
315 Charlo Street
Stevensville, MT 59870

Historic Brand of St. Mary's Mission - Cross on a Hill
The Salish Encampment
      Introduction to the Garden
LEGEND

  
AB - 
AL
AN
AN2
AS
BB
BC
BC2
BF
BH
BH2
BI
BI2
BK
BK2
BR
BU
BW
CC
CC2
CQ
CR
CU
CU2
DA
DA2
FG
FW
GI
GO
GR
HB
IR
JN
JN2
KN
LH
LI
LU
MO
NO
OG
ON
OS
PC
PE
PE2
PE3
PE4
PR
PS
PS2
RP
RR
RW
SA

Map
Common name
Scientific name
Salish name†
Ethnobotanic uses documented*
AB
Arrowleaf balsamroot
Balsamorhiza sagittata
mtčw̓e
MEDICINAL: Neighboring tribes used root smudge smoke inhaled for body aches, and a poultice of chewed roots applied to blisters and sores. Leaf poultices used for burns. Infusion of roots taken as a cathartic, for whooping cough, for tuberculosis, or to increase urine. Poultice of root infusion used for wounds, cuts and bruises. Poultice of mashed root applied to insect bites or swellings, and applied to syphilitic sores. Decoction of root used as an eyewash.
FOOD: Neighboring tribes pit-baked roots and used them for food, or sometimes ate them raw. Young, immature flower stems peeled and eaten raw. Roasted seeds ground into a flour, grease added and mixture eaten.
OTHER: Neighboring tribes used the leaves in roasting camas roots, and used the roots as incense.
AL
Alumroot, roundleaf
Heuchera cylindrical
MEDICINAL: Neighboring tribes chewed rootstocks of Prairie alumroot for diarrhea.
Alumroot, prairie
Heuchera richardsonii
c̓pc̓úp
AN2
Anemone, candle
Anemone cylindrica
MEDICINAL: Neighboring tribes used the Pasque flower to cause abortions. Ripe seed head 'cotton' burned on hot coals and the smoke inhaled for headaches. Poultice of crushed leaves applied to affected parts as a counterirritant. Decoction of plant taken by pregnant women to speed delivery of baby.
AN
Pasque flower
Anemone patens
AS
Marsh aster
Aster hesperius
BB
Beebalm/bergamot
Monarda fistulosa
xənxənéłp
MEDICINAL: Neighboring tribes took infusion of plant for coughs. Poultice of a flower head applied to a burst boil and removed after the wound healed. Poultice of plant pieces applied to cuts. Infusion used as steam to serve as an emetic. Infusion of plant taken for aching kidneys. Root chewed for swollen neck glands. Used for coughs, used for toothache, and used to make a solution for sore eyes. Infusion taken for fever, flu and chills, and pneumonia. Infusion taken for expulsion of the afterbirth. Plants hung on walls for colds.
OTHER: Neighboring tribes pulverized leaves and sprinkled on meats as a preservative and bug repellant. Leaves placed on hot rocks in the sweathouse as incense.
BC
Black cottonwood
Populus trichocarpa
mulś
BF
Blanketflower
Gaillardia aristata
MEDICINAL: Neighboring tribes used an infusion of plant rubbed on nursing mother's sore nipples, and as an eyewash or nose drops. A poultice of chewed, powdered roots applied to skin disorders. An infusion of roots taken for gastroenteritis; infusion of flower heads used as a foot wash. Infusion of roots used on horses as an eyewash for minor lacerations, and rubbed on saddle sores and places where the hair was falling out.
OTHER: Neighboring tribes rubbed flower heads on rawhide bags for waterproofing.
BH
BH2
Black hawthorne
Crataegus douglasii
sxʷexʷʔénčełp
FOOD: Neighboring tribes ate the fruits fresh, and mixed the fruit with chokecherries and service berries pressed into cakes and
dried for winter use.
OTHER: Neighboring tribes used hawthorn wood for making 'camas sticks' for digging roots.
BI
Biscuitroot, Cous
Lomatium cous
c ̓ éyc ̓ i
FOOD: Neighboring tribes pulverized roots, which they moistened, partially baked and ate as soup or made into different sized
cakes. Whole roots sun dried and stored for future food use. Roots pulverized and made into a porridge. Spring roots eaten or
reduced to flour. Peeled roots eaten raw or boiled.
BI2
Biscuitroot, fernleaf
Lomatium dissectum
pch’əl’ú
MEDICINAL: Neighboring tribes took an infusion of cut roots to increase the appetite or for tuberculosis. Root used to make a
drink taken as a tonic for 'people in a weakened condition.' Poultice of root applied and decoction used as a wash for swellings. Sap
from cut roots or oil from decoction used as a salve on cuts and sores, and used as eye drops for trachoma or gonorrheal eye
infections. Root used as 'the basis of a number of antiseptics.' Decoction of root and sometimes leaves used as an antiseptic wash
for smallpox. Poultice of root applied and decoction used as a wash for sprains. Root oil used root oil for sores and sore eyes.
Poultice of root applied and decoction of root used as a wash for rheumatism. Simple or compound decoction of root taken for
venereal diseases.
Compound decoction of root taken for colds. Decoction of root taken as a cough remedy, Compound of roots used as herbal steam
for lung or nasal congestion and asthma. Decoction of dried root taken for influenza or pneumonia. Pulverized roots smoked to
clear lungs and nasal passages. Decoction of dried root taken for hayfever and bronchitis. Raw root chewed for sore throat.
Pulverized roots smoked for asthma; or roots mixed with tobacco and smoked for sinus trouble. Smoke from root alone or in
compound was inhaled by horses for distemper.
FOOD: Neighboring tribes pit-baked and ate roots.
OTHER: Neighboring tribes burned pulverized root as incense. Plant mixed with brains was used in soft tanning.
BK2
Buckwheat, cushion
Eriogonum ovalifolium
MEDICINAL: Neighboring tribes used a decoction of root taken as a cold remedy.
BK
Buckwheat, sulphur
Eriogonum umbellatum
MEDICINAL: Neighboring tribes used a poultice of mashed leaves, often with roots, used for lameness or rheumatism, and a hot
decoction of roots was taken for colds.
FOOD: Neighboring tribes boiled leaves to make tea.
BR
Bitterroot
Lewisia rediviva
sp̓ éƛ ̓m
MEDICINAL: Neighboring tribes chewed pounded, dry root for sore throat. Roots eaten for increased milk flow after childbirth.
Infusion of roots taken for heart pain or for pleurisy pain. Plant used for impure blood.
FOOD: Neighboring tribes boiled and ate roots as a principle vegetable food. Roots steamed and used to thicken gravy. Roots
boiled or steamed and eaten plain, mixed with berries or added to meat or bone marrow. Steamed roots added to camas bulbs and
eaten as a 'sweet treat.' Roots dried, stored and used for food
BU
Silver buffaloberry
Shepherdia argentea
sxʷ̣ ósm
MEDICINAL: Neighboring tribes ate berries for stomach troubles, or as a mild laxative.
FOOD: Neighboring tribes ate fruit fresh, used fruit to make a meat flavoring sauce, and dried and stored it for winter use.
OTHER: Neighboring tribes used berries to make a red dye.
BW
Bluebunch wheatgrass
Pseudoroegneria
spicata
supúʔlexʷ
CC
CC2
Chokecherry
Prunus virginiana
łxʷ̣ ołxʷ̣ alqʷ
MEDICINAL: Neighboring tribes used berry juice for diarrhea. Infusion of cambium and serviceberry taken as a purge for
intestinal worms, or taken by nursing mothers to pass medicinal qualities to baby. Berry juice used for sore throats. Infusion of bark
used for diarrhea and dysentery; decoction of bark taken for indigestion or upset stomach. Bark resin warmed, strained, cooled and
used for sore eyes. Steam from boiling bark allowed to rise into the eyes for snow blindness.
FOOD: Neighboring tribes drank juice. Berries eaten raw. Berries greased, sun dried and stored for future use. Crushed berries,
mixed with back fat and used to make pemmican or boiled with roots to make soup. Peeled sticks inserted into roasting meat as a
spice. Berries considered a staple. Ripe fruit collected each fall and made into wine.
OTHER: Neighboring tribes used straight branches to make back rests; straight shoots used to make arrow shafts. Hard wood used
to make incense tongs or roasting skewers. Sticks used to dig roots. Sap mixed with different colored clays and used as paint.
CQ
Blue camas
Camassia quamash
sxʷ̣ e̓ ʔli
MEDICINAL: Neighboring tribes used a decoction of roots taken to induce labor. Infusion of grass taken for vaginal bleeding
after birth and to help expel the afterbirth.
FOOD: The Salish used the bulbs for food. Bulbs were pit steamed and eaten immediately as the most important vegetable food or
prepared the same way, dried slightly and used for food. Neighboring tribes did the same, as well as boiling roots with flour and
eaten as a thick gravy, and simmering them with moss in blood into a soup and used for food. Oven roasted bulbs were squeezed
into little cakes or pulverized, formed into round loaves and stored.
OTHER: The Salish used the bulbs as currency for trade.
CR
Prairie coneflower
Ratibida columnifera
Raf.
CU
Currant, golden
Ribes aureum
est ̓ém̓ p nkʷstm̓ tu
MEDICINAL: Neighboring tribes took a decoction of Golden currant inner bark for leg swellings, and applied poultice of second
bark medicinally.
CU2 FOOD: Neighboring tribes ate berries.
Currant, gooseberry
Ribes montigenum nt ̓e
DA2
Daisy, cutleaf
Erigeron compositus